MS Windows 7 (All versions)
MS Windows Vista (All versions)
MS Windows Server Products (2008, 2003, etc)
MS Windows Client Products (7, XP, 2000, NT4)
MS Windows Home Edition (7, XP, ME, 98, 95)
Red Hat
Fedora Core
Sco Unix
BSD (free and open)
AT&T Unix
Leopard version 10.5
Tiger version 10.4
X server
AIX 5L version 5.3
AIX 5L version 5.2
Netware version 6.5
NetWare Migration Wizard version 8.0
NFS Gateway for NetWare version 6.5
Sun Solaris
Intel Solaris
PC-Cillin Internet Security 2006
Avast Professional version 4.7
TCP / IP, Subnetting, VPN
MS (IIS, ISA, Exchange)
Shell Script
 What is Network?

Connectivity of two or more than two computers / nodes / resources is called a network for the purpose of sharing the data or resources.
Two major architectures of networking are:

  1. Peer 2 Peer Architecture.
  2. Client-Server Architecture.

Both client/server and peer-to-peer architectures are widely used, and each has unique advantages and disadvantages.
In others words, networking is perform of linking two or more computing devices together for the reason of distribution /circulation records/facts and figures. Networks are formation with combine of computer hardware and computer software.

 What is Peer 2 Peer Archiecture?
In Peer 2 Peer Architecture each computer/node has equivalent rights and responsibilities. This differs from client/server architectures in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler, but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. Peer to peer normally used for very small business.
 What is Client-Server Architecture?
Clients and servers are nodes/computers that execute particular responsibilities on a network. Client-server architectures are sometimes called two-tier architectures. In Client-Server Architecture all clients / computers are dependent on server policies and rights.
 What are the types of network?
There are two major types of network :
  1. Local Area Network (LAN)
  2. Wide Area Network (WAN)

But some common examples of area network types are :

  • LAN - Local Area Network.
  • WAN - Wide Area Network.
  • MAN - Metropolitan Area Network.
  • CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, or sometimes Cluster Area Network.
  • PAN - Personal Area Network.
  • HAN - Home Area Network.
  • etc

All are the combination of LAN and WAN, including the Internet Intranet and extranet.

 What is Local Area Network (LAN) ?

A local area network or LAN is a network of connected computers in a room, office, school, department, building, or set of buildings. LAN is defined as a user network whereby data is sent between people situated relatively close to each other.
Local area networks are frequently called “intranets”, though sometimes this term refers to a bunch of LANs associated with a company or organization but not connected to the larger Internet.

 What is Wide Area Network (WAN) ?
Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that spans a large geographical area, the most common example being the Internet. A WAN is contrasted to smaller local area networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks (MANs).
LANs are home or office networks, while a MAN might encompass a campus or service residents of a city, such as in a citywide wireless or "WiFi" network. The "Internet" is public WAN, but there are lots of ways to generate a business private WAN. A private WAN is basically two or more than two LANs connected to each other
 What are the advantages of network?

Network have many advantages. Some of them are as under :

  1. We can utilize minimum resources as maximum resources. For example : A printer (resource) can be operated from different computers in a network at a time (with different user rights for accessing that device/resource).
  2. We can communicate with different users within a network regardless of geographical distance.
  3. In case of server failure, The backup server itself start and clients connected to server in a network.
  4. We can access different data from different computers (with security and individual rights) on network.

 What are the disadvantages of network?

Network also have some disadvantages such as:
  1. When one user/client right to use the data in network, virus can be easily transferred along with the data to the other computer/node/resource.
  2. If network have weak security then any user can misused the data and resources.
  3. Establishing the strong network with security and with restrictions for the first time could be too expensive.
  4. Another disadvantage of network is that it requires timely update and well maintain properly and effectively.
 What is Protocol?

Protocol is the "Language" rules and regulations for communication between two nodes/devices/resources or more than two nodes/devices. A protocol includes formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages. It also may include conventions like message acknowledgement or data compression to support reliable and/or high-performance network communication
Some most popular protocols:

  1. TCP / IP (International Standard Protocol)
  2. AppleTalk
  3. IPX/SPX
  4. etc.
 What is TCP / IP?

TCP/IP Means Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect nodes/computers on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is assemble into the too many operating systems like MS Windows, UNIX (all versions), Linux (all versions), AIX and Mac operating system etc.
It is international standard protocol. It is the suite of different protocols like TCP, IP, FTP, TFTP, POP, SMTP, HTTP and SNMP etc.

 What is Firewall?

A system planned to prevent illegal access to or from a network. Firewalls can be divided into three types one is hardware, second is software, and a combination of both.

 What is Extranet ?

An extranet is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes. Extranets are extensions to, or segments of, private intranet networks that have been built in many corporations for information sharing and ecommerce

 What is Wi-Fi ?

Wi-Fi, which stands for wireless fidelity, WiFi older term Hi-Fi, is a wireless networking technology used across the world. Wi-Fi refers to any system that uses the 802.11 standard, the term Wi-Fi, which is alternatively spelled WiFi, Wi-fi, Wifi, or wifi, was pushed by the Wi-Fi grouping, a trade group that pioneered commercialization of the technology. In a Wi-Fi network, computers with wifi network cards connect wirelessly to Internet.

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