MS Windows 7 (All versions)
MS Windows Vista (All versions)
MS Windows Server Products (2008, 2003, etc)
MS Windows Client Products (7, XP, 2000, NT4)
MS Windows Home Edition (7, XP, ME, 98, 95)
Red Hat
Fedora Core
Sco Unix
BSD (free and open)
AT&T Unix
Leopard version 10.5
Tiger version 10.4
X server
AIX 5L version 5.3
AIX 5L version 5.2
Netware version 6.5
NetWare Migration Wizard version 8.0
NFS Gateway for NetWare version 6.5
Sun Solaris
Intel Solaris
PC-Cillin Internet Security 2006
Avast Professional version 4.7
TCP / IP, Subnetting, VPN
MS (IIS, ISA, Exchange)
Shell Script


A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions. There are many different types of LANs Ethernets being the most common for PCs. Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apple's AppleTalk network system, which is built into Macintosh computers.
The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from another:

  • topology : The geometric arrangement of devices on the network. For example, devices can be arranged in a ring or in a straight line.
  • protocols : The rules and encoding specifications for sending data. The protocols also determine whether the network uses a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.
  • media : Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables. Some networks do without connecting media altogether, communicating instead via radio waves.
LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN.


(pronounced as separate letters) Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the >Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.


A mask used to determine what subnet an IP address belongs to. An IP address has two components, the network address and the host address. For example, consider the IP address Assuming this is part of a Class B network, the first two numbers (150.215) represent the Class B network address, and the second two numbers (017.009) identify a particular host on this network.
Subnetting enables the network administrator to further divide the host part of the address into two or more subnets. In this case, a part of the host address is reserved to identify the particular subnet. This is easier to see if we show the IP address in binary format. The full address is:
The Class B network part is:
and the host address is
If this network is divided into 14 subnets, however, then the first 4 bits of the host address (0001) are reserved for identifying the subnet.
The subnet mask is the network address plus the bits reserved for identifying the subnetwork. (By convention, the bits for the network address are all set to 1, though it would also work if the bits were set exactly as in the network address.) In this case, therefore, the subnet mask would be 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000. It's called a mask because it can be used to identify the subnet to which an IP address belongs by performing a bitwise AND operation on the mask and the IP address.


(pronounced as separate letters) Short for virtual private network, a network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.

 Microsoft Tools / Utilities

Microsoft ISA

(Pronounced as separate letters or as eye-sa). Short for Industry Standard Architecture bus, the bus architecture used in the IBM PC/XT and PC/AT. The AT version of the bus is called the AT bus and became a de facto industry standard. Starting in the early 90s, ISA began to be replaced by the PCI local bus architecture. Most computers made today include both an AT bus for slower devices and a PCI bus for devices that need better bus performance. In 1993, Intel and Microsoft introduced a new version of the ISA specification called Plug and Play ISA. Plug and Play ISA enables the operating system to configure expansion boards automatically so that users do not need to fiddle with DIP switches and jumpers.

Microsoft Exchange

Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 has been designed specifically to meet these challenges and address the needs of the different groups who have a stake in the messaging system. The new capabilities of Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 deliver the advanced protection your company demands, the anywhere access your people want, and the operational efficiency you, in IT, need.

Microsoft IIS

Short for Internet Information Server, Microsoft's Web server that runs on Windows NT platforms. In fact, IIS comes bundled with Windows NT 4.0. Because IIS is tightly integrated with the operating system, it is relatively easy to administer. However, currently IIS is available only for the Windows NT platform, whereas Netscape's Web servers run on all major platforms, including Windows NT, OS/2 and UNIX.

Unix / Linux Utilities


An open source implementation of the SMB file sharing protocol that provides file and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba allows a non-Windows server to communicate with the same networking protocol as the Windows products.
Samba was originally developed for UNIX but can now run on Linux,FreeBSD and other UNIX variants. It is freely available under the GNU General Public License. The name Samba is a variant of SMB, the protocol from which it stems.


Often referred to as simply Apache, a public-domain open source Web server developed by a loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version of Apache, based on the NCSA httpd Web server, was developed in 1995. Core development of the Apache Web server is performed by a group of about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group. However, because the source code is freely available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is a large public library of Apache add-ons. In many respects, development of Apache is similar to development of the Linux operating system. The original version of Apache was written for UNIX, but there are now versions that run under OS/2, Windows and other platforms. The name is a tribute to the Native American Apache Indian tribe, a tribe well known for its endurance and skill in warfare. A common misunderstanding is that it was called Apache because it was developed from existing NCSA code plus various patches, hence the name a patchy server, or Apache server.


An open source implementation of the SMB file sharing protocol that provides file and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba allows a non-Windows server to communicate with the same networking protocol as the Windows products. Samba was originally developed for UNIX but can now run on Linux,FreeBSD and other UNIX variants. It is freely available under the GNU General Public License. The name Samba is a variant of SMB, the protocol from which it stems.

Shell Script

(1) The outermost layer of a program. Shell is another term for user interface. Operating systems and applications sometimes provide an alternative shell to make interaction with the program easier. For example, if the application is usually command driven, the shell might be a menu-driven system that translates the user's selections into the appropriate commands.
(2) Sometimes called command shell, a shell is the command processor interface. The command processor is the program that executes operating system commands. The shell, therefore, is the part of the command processor that accepts commands. After verifying that the commands are valid, the shell sends them to another part of the command processor to be executed.
UNIX systems offer a choice between several different shells, the most popular being the Cshell, the Bourne shell, and the Korn shell. Each offers a somewhat different command language.
Copyright    © 2006-2014 AHK Soft, All Rights Reserved
       Terms of Use      |      Privacy Policy
Home    |    About Us    |    Services & Solutions     |    Clients    |    Careers    |    Contact    |    FAQs